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Chiropractic is a type of alternative medicine which works to treat and prevent problems to the musculoskeletal system, with particular attention paid to the spine. This often involves manipulating, joints and other soft tissues. Chiropractors tend to specialize in areas such as back, muscle and neck pain which patients are having.

Chiropractic treatment Pickering uses highly trained professionals to carry out the therapy. They generally use their hand or other special instruments to carry out the therapy, which many people claim to help relive neck, back and shoulder pain, as well as other health issues. Usually, multiple treatments are necessary in order to begin to see positive results, so the patient will need to be patient! It is important that only a highly trained professional carries out the procedure, due to the jerk-like actions which are often carried out, and this is sometimes where chiropractic therapy gets its criticism, when non-trained people carry out the therapy and painful accidents can occur that can produce long term back, shoulder or neck pain, making the original pain or injury even worse. It is always important to find a trusted, reliable and highly trained chiropractor, just as if you were going to see the doctor or the dentist.

Like many other alternative medicines, the chiropractic field often gets a good dose of criticism from health experts, medical experts, scientists and the public. They claim that there is little evidence that chiropractic actually works to help ease physical problems that we have in our bodies.

Despite these criticisms, chiropractic refuses to disappear from society. The practice has been around since 1890, when D.D. Palmer founded the technique. Many private health insurers actually cover chiropractic care. In other areas such as Cornwall, the technique is only available for neck and back pain.

Most people seek chiropractic therapy to help resolve neck or back pain issues. It has been proven that this technique works, as long as the chiropractic therapy is combined with certain types of exercise. To help fix short-term back problems, it has even been shown that it can work better than other conventional techniques. For long term back pain, it has been proven that it can work just as well as the conventional techniques.

For people who have always suffered from bad posture, chiropractic therapy is highly recommended to not only fix your posture, but to also prevent future problems to your spine from occurring.Chiropractic treatment works because it is a therapy which believes that your body has a natural ability to heal itself. It believes your body’s musculoskeletal system, nervous system, joints and muscles are all closely linked together, and therefore the therapy works to help a range of different health problems, not only for neck, back and shoulder pain. The process works on problems such as posture issues because it helps to balance your body’s natural structure and it helps your body to heal itself rather than using unnatural methods which can cause other issues to the body.…




Five hundred years after Columbus’s navigational error we currently witness a growing interest in the Caribbean. For travel agents and in action movies,there is only one Caribbean, one that usually conjures a multitude of pre-conceived ideas and contradictory myths thrust together by a fascination for the exotic.

But for those of us who breath and live in, and because of it, the Spanish
speaking Caribbean, the three Antilles:

, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, evoke and convoke images of  mulattos, blacks and caucasians; orthodox Christianity and religious animist syncretism; capitalism andsocialism at different stages of development and dissolution; opulence and misery; laser beam physicians and village healers; some evidence of rational patterns of thought, a bit of happiness and a constellation of people’s dreams, illusions and hopes. 

Our common denominator is a legacy of resistance to the process of conquest
and colonization and its consequences that explains why  cultural
manifestations in the Antilles spring from a common center,  a historical
and cultural cannon of reaffirmation.

We want to share a sense of belonging – geographically and culturally – from our own reality and history. You can have garbage collection toronto It’s culturally important.

Antillanía deals with issues that reveal the complexity of the Spanish-speaking Caribbean. We review cultural expressions of these Antilles, countriesset on a determined course by the needs of colonial powers, and ponder our destiny.   As it brings forth different accents of Antillian culture and  experience, while there, you can also get a limo brampton to travel around in style Antillanía promotes dialog between Siboney (Cuba), Borikén(Puerto Rico) and Quisqueya (Dominican Republic) and provides students and educators with resources that enhance their knowledge of this region and it’s people.   This site presents us through what we ourselves have said and say today about being “Antillanos”.  To be “Antillanos” was an aspiration at the end of the 19th century, that came into being from a common heritage of slavery and traditional and not so traditional colonization.  To be “Antillanos” is still an aspiration in this new century as we create and recreate our lives and identity.



Los textos aparecen en su versión original en español o inglés.
Texts appear in their original version, in English or Spanish.

Original artwork
on this site is from

Home Decor Toronto







División de Educación de la Comunidad 


jack delano
edwin rosskam
oscar torres

Uno de los proyectos educativos
más innovadores del Caribe y América Latina durante la década de los años cincuenta, la División
de Educación de la Comunidad, se creó con la meta  de cambiar actitudes en la población adulta, rural y tradicionalista de Puerto Rico.

A mediados de la década del ’40, el gobierno reúne a un grupo de
artistas plásticos, entre ellos, Jack e Irene Delano, con la encomienda de producir películas y
carteles para instruir a los campesinos sobre salubridad,
alfabetización y acción comunal.

Este grupo, junto con escritores, técnicos y líderes de grupo que iban al campo a trabajar
con las comunidades, constituyó DivEdCo (División de Educación de la Comunidad), agencia creada por ley en mayo de 1949 y adscrita del Departamento de Instrucción Publica.

Bajo la dirección de Edwin Rosskam desde sus inicios, una de las secciones de la División, la de
Producción, tenía a su cargo la creación de materiales educativos audiovisuales: carteles, una colección de Libros para el pueblo,y películas. Contó también con la colaboración de
Jack Delano en calidad de director, guionista y musicalizador de muchos de
los filmes.  La primera película del grupo, Una gota de agua, data de 1947 y fue dirigida por Jack Delano.

En la sección de Producción  se forma el primer grupo de cineastas; algunos se convierten en directores como Amílcar Tirado, Luis Maisonet, Marcos Betancourt, Ángel F. Rivera y Félix Ramírez. Es importante destacar la colaboración del director dominicano, Oscar Torres, ya que fue el primer antillano en dirigir cine tanto en Puerto Rico con DivEdCo, como en Cuba con el Instituto Cinematográfico de Artes y Ciencias (ICAIC). Entre los directores de fotografía estaban Jesús Figueroa, Gabriel Tirado y Pedro Juan López. Héctor Moll se especializó como sonidista y Otoniel Vila como productor.

Para el año 1975 DivEdCo había producido 65 cortometrajes y dos largometrajes. Los largometrajes son Intolerancia y Los peloteros, dirigida y musicalizada por Jack Delano con guión de Amílcar Tirado.


After después

The Cuban Revolutionary period
marks the years from 1959 to the present.
In 1959 the Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and Industry (ICAIC) was founded and  in 1960 the “Cuban Cine” magazine, sponsored by the ICAIC. In that same year Tomás Gutiérrez Alea presented his Historias de la revolución, the first non-documentary film, and Julio García Espinosa his Cuba Dances.


Amor Vertical (1997)

Azucar Amarga (1996)…aka Bitter Sugar

Bataille des Dix Millions, La (1970)

Buena Vista Social Club (1999)

Estorvo (2000)

Fresa y Chocolate (1993)…aka Strawberry & Chocolate

Guantanamera (1994)

Letters from the Park (1988)

Lista de espera (2000)

Lucia (1968)

Madagascar (1994)

Mariposas en el Andamio (1995)…aka Butterflies on the Scaffold

Memorias del Subdesarrollo (1968)…aka
Memories of Underdevelopment
The film centers on a Europeanized Cuban intellectual, too idealistic to leave for Miami, but too decadent to fit into the new Cuban society.

La Muerte de un Burócrata(1966)…aka Death of a Bureaucrat

Retrato de Teresa (1979)…aka Portrait of Teresa

Si Me Comprendieras (1998)

Soy Cuba/Ya Kuba (1964…aka I Am Cuba

La Ultima Cena (1976)…aka The Last Supper
The Last Supper is based on a story about a slaveholder who in 1790 decided to replicate Jesus’ act of
washing his disciples’ feet.

Vampiros en La Habana (1985)

El Verano de la Señora Forbes (1988)

La Vida es Silbar (1998)

y artículos

 Books and articles

Adelman, Alan. ed.
A Guide to Cuban Cinema. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1981.
(Out of Print) 

Chanan, Michael. The Cuban Image: Cinema and Cultural Politics
in Cuba
Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1985. (Out of Print)

Ilf, and, Petrov. The Twelve Chairs. Trans. John H.C. Richardson. 2nd ed.
Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2000.

Mraz, John. Recasting Cuban Slavery: The Other Francisco and the Last Supper. Based on a True Story: Latin American History at the Movies. Ed.
Donald D. Stevens. Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1997. pages 103-123.

Weinstein, Barbara. Lucia: Inventing Women’s History on Film. Based on a
True Story: Latin American History at the Movies. Ed. Donald F. Stevens.
Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1997. pages 123-143.


Before antes de 1959

Cine Cubano

had a rich and varied cinematic tradition. This survey presents a showcase
of the leading creative voices and talents who helped build a national
cinema before the Cuban Revolution of 1959
The first Cuban film was
made in 1897 and more than eighty  movies were produced before the




El Cabo de San Antonio o Jocuma (1955)

El Megano (1954)

El Parque de Palatino (1906)

El Romance del Palmar (1938)

Estampas Habaneras (1939)

Hotel de Muchachas (1951)

La Serpiente Roja (1937)

Carlos Badias, Anibal del Mar. First feature talkie. Detective Chan Li Po
investigates a murder at a mansion.

Maracas y Bongo (1932)

Yolanda Gonzalez, Jose Manuel Valdes and Fernando Collazo.

The first talkie of Cuba. A short musical scene on a Cuban patio.

Maria la O (1948)

Rita Montaner, Issa Morante Emilio Tuero, A melodrama set in Cuba of 1840 concerning the impossible love of a mulata and a white youth.

Siete Muertes a Plazo Fijo
Raquel Revuelta, Alejandro Lugo and Eduardo Casado. A thriller Cuban style with the influences of North America.  





Cine Cubano después de 1959


 Tomas Gutiérrez Alea


The film is based on a true storyas John Mraz describes in his article:

Recasting Cuban Slavery: The Other Francisco and the Last Supper
 “…  is based on an anecdote about a slaveholder who in 1790 decided to replicate Jesus’ act of washing his disciples’ feet. Gutiérrez Alea found the account in a work by one of Cuba’s most eminent historians, Manuel Moreno

‘His Excellency the Count de Casa Bayona decided in an act of deep Christian fervor to humble himself before the slaves. One Holy Thursday he washed twelve Negroes’ feet, sat them at his table, and served them food in imitation of Christ. But their theology was somewhat shallow and, instead of behaving like the Apostles, they took advantage of the prestige they thus acquired in their fellow-slaves’ eyes to organize a mutiny and burn down the mill. The Christian performance ended with rancheadores (hunters of escaped  slaves) hunting down the fugitives and sticking on twelve pikes the heads of the slaves before whom his Excellency had prostrated himself.”

Another account of the film is found in A Guide to Cuban Cinema:  ” is both an allegory and satire on Christianity in an oppressive society. The film is actually based on an incident which occurred  in Cuba towards the end of the 18th Century, when a guilt-ridden Count, torn between the need to keep up production on his plantation and a desire to introduce the tenets of Christianity to his slaves, decides to reenact the Last Supper. It is no surprise that once the slave master decided on this course he would portray himself as Christ. The events take place during Holy Week between Maundy Thursday and Easter Sunday. Central to the entire film are four fundamental conflicts: that of the priest who is determined to teach the slaves the meaning of Christianity, for which he demands from the Count that there should be no work on the Sabbath and holy days, and from the slaves that adhere to the maxim that slaves should obey their masters; that of the overseer who has his production quotas to fill and who is determined to keep the slaves in line on the plantation and who sees the work of the priest as both dangerous and detracting from the achievement of his quotas; that of the slaves, proud, resilient, and forever ready to subvert the system; and that of the Count, torn between the need to extract as much labor from his
slaves, and burdened by the guilt that as a white slave holder his work would be unfulfilled if he failed to bring the true teachings of Christianity  to his slaves. The skillful manipulation of these conflicts makes for a very exciting film.”



Back Up




Puerto Rico
Breve Historia




irrumpió en el Caribe

a fines del siglo 15 y   Cristóbal Colón se encontró a Borikén en su
segundo viaje (1493) y la llamó San Juan Bautista.  El nombre de la isla
se fue identificando con su principal puerto y terminó llamándose Puerto


Juan Ponce de León inició la conquista y colonización de la isla en el siglo 16
y, cuando Fray Bartolomé Las Casas convenció a la corona española de
mejorar las condiciones de los indígenas, ya no quedaban muchos de los
habitantes originales, los taínos.

El despoblamiento indígena aumentaba a medida que avanzaba el siglo 16;
muchos murieron a causa de las enfermedades que trajeron los
europeos, sarampión y viruelas, entre otras.  Otros, a causa de la
explotación laboral en los yacimientos de oro. 

inalmente, un número considerable murió en la rebelión de 1511 refugiándose los sobrevivientes en la islas cercanas. 

Estos u
nieron fuerzas con los caribes y crearon focos de resistencia contra los españoles hasta fines del siglo (1580).

Para sustituir a los indígenas en los trabajos de minería, se trajeron esclavos africanos temprano durante la colonización.  Estos procedían del Africa occidental desde lo que es hoy Mali hasta Nigeria y Angola.

Pero los descubrimientos de grandes yacimientos de oro en México
y Perú motivaron la partida de muchos residentes de la isla para probar
fortuna en el continente. A mediados del siglo 16 (1546) se calculaban en
80 los cabezas de familia residentes en la isla. La menguante producción
de las minas de oro obligó a orientar el desarrollo de la economía de la
isla hacia la agricultura y la ganadería.

Entre 1550 y 1650 el azúcar se convirtió en el renglón más
productivo de la economía de Puerto Rico.  Sin embargo, el nivel de
producción no se sostuvo y para la segunda mit
ad del siglo 17 la isla
suplía sólo el 5% del total de azúcar importado de las Indias a España.
El buen precio en Europa estimuló la expansión de la siembra de caña a las
colonias británicas, quienes se convirtieron en los principales
productores de azúcar en el Caribe.


El ganado y las siembras de jengibre fueron otros cultivos importantes durante l
os siglos 16 y 17.  Debido a la gran demanda que había en Europa por el cuero, la crianza de ganado prosperó rápidamente.  El jengibre, que llegó a América de Asia o África, se caracteriza por ser de fácil cultivo y, por esta razón, tuvo mucho arraigo entre los campesinos pobres.  Cuando Brasil se apodera del mercado de jengibre, el precio baja y Puerto Rico no sigue exportándolo.  El café sustituirá al té de jengibre en el siglo 18. 


La población de la isla se había reducido  a alrededor de 10,000 personas  para fines del siglo 17.  La tierra estaba dividida entre hatos, estancias y haciendas.  En los llanos de las costas estaban los hatos, grandes extensiones pobladas de árboles de guayaba donde pastaba el ganado.  Las estancias, pequeños lotes de terreno con una casa localizados en los márgenes de los ríos, cultivaban je
ngibre.  La hacienda era un pequeño predio, también cerca de un río, en el que se sembraban productos para el sustento de las familia, tales como yuca, plátanos, arroz y pasto para los bueyes que molían la caña de azúcar en el trapiche, que a
diferencia del ingenio, utilizaba la fuerza del arrastre de los bueyes y no el agua para la molienda.

La poca densidad poblacional del siglo 17 puertorriqueño no
propiciaba el


Education in Puerto Rico

From Puerto Rico: A Guide to the Island of Boriquén

Federal Writers Project, 1940



The first known record relating to education in Puerto Rico may be
said to be a royal order dated March 20, 1503 to Nicolás de Ovando, Governor
General of the West Indies. This decree ordered that a church be built in
each settlement, together with an adjoining house where children might
assemble twice a day to be taught by the priest to read and write.
Ponce de León complied with this royal command when he established Caparra
in 1508. Five years later, the King of Spain ordered colonists to provide
instruction in the Christian doctrine for the benefit of the Indians. At the
same time it was ordered that native boys be taught to read and write and
that the sons of caciques or chiefs be entrusted to the Franciscan friars
for a four-year period of instruction, after which time they were to become
the teachers of the Indian population.


The first official notice of a school
actually functioning in Puerto Rico is found in a memorial sent to King
Phillip II, January I, 1562. For the first two hundred years, education in
the Island was limited to the teaching of Christian doctrine, arts, and
grammar. Classes were held in only four towns: San Juan, Arecibo, San German
and Coamo. In 1782, Friar Iñigo Abbad Lasierra, author of the first history
of Puerto Rico, reported a lack of educational facilities, though the first
attempt at public education had been made in 1776. In 1799, four women were
appointed to instruct classes for girls in San Juan.


The economic and educational renaissance of
Puerto Rico began with the nineteenth century. The rural school had its
beginning in 1809, when General Messina established a school of agriculture
and the manual arts. In 1820, the government adopted a method of
instruction, formulated by Francisco Tadeo de Rivera, deputy director of
schools in San Juan. At the same time, the influential Sociedad Económica de
Amigos del País, founded in 1813 by Alejandro Ramírez, first treasurer of
Puerto Rico, opened an institute with courses in mathematics, commerce,
geography, civil law, philosophy, and drawing, which functioned for many
years. In 1825, the cathedral in San Juan established a school offering
courses in theology, philosophy, ethics, Latin, civil and canon law, and
liturgy. These cultural centers were considered an excellent foundation for
a university, which, however, did not materialize.


Rafael Cordero, a poor Negro cigar maker,
opened a free primary school for poor children in 1810. Cordero’s teaching
ability was soon recognized, and the wealthy families of San Juan sent their
children to learn under him. Many Puerto Rican intellectuals of the
nineteenth century received their primary education in the little school
which Cordero maintained for forty-eight years.


A school of 1878 is described in verses by
Manuel Fernández Juncos, which may be freely translated as follows:


They gave me a little school, and I swear by my grandmother that the dwelling of a layman has much more the appearance of a school. A dilapidated table (listen, Petra, what furnishings!) a picture of Saint Anne pasted on the wall, a chair with no back, a crucifix, a blackboard with two inscriptions—Carthage and Rome; three ferrules; a whip hanging close to the table—a long thick switch worthy the name of bludgeon; two sheets of white paper, four pens, an old inkwell and an old, lame secretary. In this school where (no joking) I earn thirty dollars a month, I




overview of
Puerto Rican Folk Music


he traditional or folk music of Puerto Rico expresses many influences and traditions. Bomba, an early form, was created on plantations by enslaved Africans and their descendants in the 1680s. Plena music was introduced by workers near Ponce around 1898. Jíbaro or peasant music is Puerto Rico’s country music. 


North African Moslems, known as Moors, controlled many parts of Spain between 711 and
1500. The Moors left many cultural influences in Spain, especially in music, language, art, cuisine, and architecture. Jíbaro music embodies a mix of the musical traditions of Spain, including Moorish elements, especially in the performance of the seis genre. 


These three kinds of music are closely related. Performances of plena, bomba, and seis often
include instruments from other kinds of music. This mixture of instruments
and rhythms illustrates why scholars call Puerto Rico a creolized
society—its culture emerged from the mixing of different traditions.

Jíbaro Music 


Seis is the most important form of jíbaro music. Seis means many things within the
music—not only a type of singing but also a type of rhythm. The seis came
to Puerto Rico from Spain in the 1680s. Spanish stringed instruments
served as the inspiration for distinctive Puerto Rican instruments such as
the cuatro, tiple, and bordonúa. 


Of these, the cuatro, a kind of guitar, is most widely used today, not only in jibaro
music but also in plena and others. The back of the cuatro in this case is
made out of a native gourd. The cuatro, the guitar, and the güiro form the
jibaro ensemble. Today, many musicians add bongo drums and bass. This
güiro is made from the gourd of the native marimbo amargo plant. 


In its repertoire the music of the jibaros of Puerto Rico also shows its clear Andalusian origins. All the songs are sung and the frequent use of improvised couplets of ten syllables each,
called décimas, links the Puerto Rican tradition to 16th Century
Spanish poetic practice. Two of the most frequently encountered forms are
the ‘aguinaldo’ and the ‘seis’. The ‘aguinaldo’ or Christmas offering is
based on an old form of Spanish Christmas carol. The ‘seis’, which
literally means ‘six’ is, in fact, a great number of different tune types,
or melodic motifs each of which can then be used as the basis for sung
poetic improvisation. What is interesting about the performance of the
‘seis’ in Puerto Rico is that most are named after a particular town on
the island. Thus we have the ‘Seis de Andino’, the ‘Enramada’, named for
the town of Ramos, the Seis del Dorado, named for El Dorado, etc. In this
sense the naming of these ‘seises’ after towns parallels the practice in
Spain of naming different types of fandango after the particular town or
region of Andalusia where the variant form was developed. In point of fact
many of these seises, are fandangos in origin.


The Aguinaldos are traditional Christmas tunes, many of which are also known in other parts of Latin America. During the Christmas season there would be what is called a ‘parranda’ in
which a group of family, friends and neighbors would take out their
instruments and sing and play these Christmas carols, going from house to
house in the area, usually being invited in for food and drink at each
house and perhaps ending it with a succulent roast suckling pig.
Gradually, these aguinaldos came to be used as vehicles for the
improvisation of decimas and have come to be used almost